Use a thesaurus.
Distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones.
Add suffixes to spell longer words, including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly.
Apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1.
Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1).
Spell further homophones.
Spell words that are often misspelt (English Appendix 1).
Spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn].
Continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused.
Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English Appendix 1.
Use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words.
Using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read.
Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words.
Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word.
Read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings.
Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs.
Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent.
Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes.
Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above.
Read words containing common suffixes.
Read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word.
Read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.
Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet.
Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.
Spelling words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught.
Spelling common exception words.
Using –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words [for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest].
Apply simple spelling rules and guidance.
Using the prefix un–.
Using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbs.
Using letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound.
Spelling segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly.
Learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones.
Learning to spell common exception words.
Learning to spell more words with contracted forms.
Read words with contractions [for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll], and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s).
Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.
Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
Acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language.
Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes.