Listening to and discussing a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently.
Being encouraged to link what they read or hear read to their own experiences.
Becoming very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics.
Recognising and joining in with predictable phrases.
Discussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known.
Understand books by drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher.
Understand books by checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading.
Understand books by predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far.
Participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say.
Being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways.
Recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry.
Discussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary.
Increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally.
Asking questions to improve their understanding of a text.
Predicting what might happen from details stated and implied.
Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet.
Read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.
Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent.
Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above.
Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words.
Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes.
Read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings.
Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs.
Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered.
Understand books by making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done.
Understand books by answering and asking questions.
Discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related.
Reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes.
Discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination.
Identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these.
Identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books .
Listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks.
Continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks.
Increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions.
Identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing.
Understand what they read by asking questions to improve their understanding.
Summarising the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.
Identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.
Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader.
Spelling segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly.
Learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones.
Learning to spell more words with contracted forms.
Draft and write in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot.
Learn how to use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command.
Learn how to use some features of written Standard English.
Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1).
Spell words that are often misspelt (English Appendix 1).
Spell further homophones.
Continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused.
Spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn].
Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English Appendix 1.
Read easily, fluently and with good understanding.
Acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language.
Appreciate our rich and varied literary heritage.
Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why.
Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
Describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
Describe the overall structure of a story.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
Read and comprehend literature proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words.
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures.
Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
Determine the central message, lesson, or moral of a text.
Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about similar characters.
Read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry independently and proficiently.
Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text.
Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context.
Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty.
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those referring to characters of mythology.
Describe the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
Read and comprehend literature, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences to read unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
Correctly use frequently confused words.
Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Determine a theme of a story from details in the text, including how characters in a story respond to challenges.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language.
Explain how a series of chapters, scenes fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story.
Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.
Compare and contrast the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
Becoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales.
Retrieve and record information from non-fiction.
Identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning.
Drawing inferences such as inferring characters’. feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.
Using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read.
Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns.
Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information.
Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text.
Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.
Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.
With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.